Studia Politica, vol. VI, no. 1, 2006
Military Interventions after the Cold War: Humanitarianism or Neo-Colonialism
The aim of this article is to examine the similarities and differences between the use of force after 1990 and colonial police operations of the 19th and 20th centuries. Our goal is to analyze and compare three aspects of these armed operations: the underlying ideologies, the aims and the goals, and the means and methods. The article intends to demonstrate that today we assist to “the return of history”, the pre-Cold War history, rather than to the “end of history”. Despite some obvious differences between the two types of interventions, the article states that there are more similarities than divergences between these operations and that we are witnessing the emergence of a form of neocolonialism based on the liberal ideology.
The Last Leninist Revolution: Theory and Praxis of a Revolutionary Authority in Romania
Has the Romanian Revolution of 1989 produced a renewed vision of post-communist political authority? Can the fall of Romanian communism in December 1989 be seen as the end of a political venture that informed the political institutions and the exercise of political power for several decades? What was rejected and what remained from the Romanian communism as a political system after the Revolution of 1989? In order to answer these questions, the study explores the ways the newly emerging and established political actors right after the demise of the Romanian Communist Party thought of themselves as “revolutionaries”, envisaged the political change, its imperatives and its emergences, and acted as political authorities in charge of this political transformation.
December 1989: The Relationship of the New Leaders to the Communist Past: Debating on Romania’s Recent History
In Romania, the relationship with the communist past s strongly linked with two disappearances: that of the former dictator and that of the former unique party. Interestingly, the set-up of these disappearances is quite different. One is public and radical, while the other is silent and problematic as if the striking clarity of the first puts into the shade the resorts and history of the second. After any radical political change, there is inevitably a form of “recollection of memories” (Paul Connerton, How Societies Remember, 1989), a process through which the past is re-evaluated in the light of values privileged by the new political regime. One of the questions to be answered is how do the first post-communist leaders confront Romania’s tragic past? This paper analyzes the premises of the political debate on communism in the discourse of CFSN (Council of the National Salvation Front) and FSN (National Salvation Front). The paper also tries to expose the intimate mechanisms through which FSN took heritage of the PCR (Romanian Communist Party), making use of a discourse that promised change, only to limit it afterward.
Since 1989, lustration has figured prominently among the methods post-communist Eastern Europe used to deal with its recent past. While to date the literature has recognized that countries like the former Czechoslovakia, Germany, Albania, and, more recently, Poland, have screened electoral candidates and/or members of the judiciary, the army, and the police forces, in order to remove officials with a tainted past from post-communist politics, Romania has been dismissed as a country which consistently rejected lustration. However, calls for the removal of communist officials and secret political police agents were voiced soon after the Revolution of December 1989, and the measures they called for were more comprehensive both in terms of the social categories subjected to and the time period of the ban. This article is the first in-depth analysis to examine the lustration demands included in the Timisoara Declaration, explain the reasons why they received a cold shoulder from formations spanning the entire political spectrum, and map the negotiations between political parties and the civil society for the renewal of the political class. Romania missed the window of opportunity to legislate lustration because of such factors as its bloody exit from communism, the inability of pro-democratic opposition to wrestle power from the successor of the Communist Party, and its predominantly subject political culture.
After 1989: Some Thoughts on the Romanian Constitutionalism
The aim of this paper is to provide the reader with an insight into the post-communist Romanian constitutionalism. In order to achieve this objective, it is concerned with the way in which the constitutional framework has been built. Another topic of the paper is an attempt to clarify the political nature of the constitutional regime, starting from the very institution of the presidency.
SORIN MITU, Transilvania mea. Istorii, mentalitati, identitati, Editura Polirom, col. « Historia », Iasi, 2006, 373 pp. (ALEXANDRA PETRESCU), pp. 199-204
VICTOR KARADY, LUCIAN NASTASA, The University of Kolozsvár / Cluj and the Students of the Medical Faculty (1872-1918), CEU Press – Centrul de Resurse pentru Diversitate Etnoculturala, Budapesta-Cluj, 2004, 394 pp. (DRAGOS DRAGOMAN), pp. 204-210
ZOLTÁN TIBORI SZABÓ, Frontiera dintre viata si moarte. Refugiul si salvarea evreilor la granita româno-maghiara (1940-1944), traducere de FLORiCA PERIAN, Editura Compania, Bucuresti, 2005, 318 pp. (ALEXANDRA PETRESCU), pp.210-214
MONICA ROBOTIN, LEVENTE SALAT (editori), A New Balance: Democracy and Minorities in Post-Communist Europe, Centrul de Resurse pentru Diversitate Etnoculturala, Cluj, 2004, 198 pp. (DRAGOS DRAGOMAN), pp. 214-220.
MARC MAYER, Les laïcités en francophonie, Éditions Labor, coll. « Quartier Libre », Bruxelles, 2005, 93 pp. (ALEXANDRA PETRESCU), pp. 220-223
SERGIU MISCOIU, Le Front National et ses répercussions sur l’échiquier politique français (1972-2002), Editura Efes, Cluj-Napoca, 2005, 124 pp. (RUXANDRA IVAN), pp. 224-226
ÉLIANE GUBIN, CATHERINE JACQUES, FLORENCE ROCHEFORT, BRIGITTE STUDER, FRANÇOISE THEBAUD, MICHELLE ZANCARINI-FOURNEL (sous la direction de), Le siècle des féminismes, préface de MICHELLE PERROT, Les Éditions de l’Atelier / Éditions Ouvrières, Paris, 2004, 463 pp. (ALEXANDRA PETRESCU), pp. 226-236
MARIA LAURA LANZILLO, Il multiculturalismo, Editori Laterza, Biblioteca Esenziale, serie Politica, Roma-Bari, 2005, 149 pp. (ALEXANDRA PETRESCU), pp. 236-240
Caiete de antropologie istorica (« Sarbatoare, celebrare, comemorare »), Anul IV, nr. 1 (7), ianuarie-iunie 2005, 468 pp. (SERGIU MISCOIU), pp. 241-242