Studia Politica, vol. IV, no. 4, 2004
ALEXANDRA IONESCU, Le Parti, où est-il parti?, pp. 801-806
The Party, Where Has It Gone?
December 1989 meant for Romania the end of the communist system. The Romanian Communist Party, one of the largest unreformed parties of the Soviet bloc, went out completely from the scene. The State, i.e. the whole administrative and coercive structure of the socialist system, endured. Where did the Party disappear? The study tries to answer this question by examining the logic of Party-State relations during the Ceauºescu epoch. One of the distinguishing features of Romanian communism was to institutionalize the capture and fusion of the Party and the State. So, by the end of communism, as no clear boundary between the two was discernible, the Party could find refuge in the State and dissolve itself into postcommunism.
”The Socialist Transformation of Agriculture”. From Political Ideology to Local Politics
The article contends that one of the most disturbing phenomena and with long-lasting effects of communism was the collectivization of agriculture. In its first part, this study examines the ideological and political reasons that lay behind the collectivization of the rural areas in the post 1917 period. It then analyses the way collectivization was put into practice in Romania through propaganda and a specific legislation in the aftermath of the Second World War. Repression and violence against the peasants accompanied these measures. The second part of the article is a case study of a rural community of South-East Romania that reluctantly underwent the process of socialist transformation of agriculture during the ’50-‘60s.
Teaching at the Party’s School. The Theaching Staff at the Academy ”Ștefan Gheorghiu” of Bucharest: Profiles
The article examines the institutional, social and professional dynamics of an Academy meant to train the future personnel of the Romanian Communist Party. It contends that the teaching staff of the Party’s school produced and reproduced for decades a specific communist ethos. Using archive documents as well as interviews, the analysis looks at the biographies of the teaching personnel in order to grasp different individual strategies for professional and political success. It aims at highlighting the interaction between academic activities and the political affiliation within the framework of an institution designed to embody the Communist ideology. Thus, the article explores a topic that has been so far neglected by the Romanian social sciences, that is the interwoven connexion between the regime and the educational system.
”The Party Writer”. The School of Literature ”Mihai Eminescu”
The development of social realism in Romania after Word War II led to the restructuring of the Romanian literary space. It also led to a relative loss of its autonomy, because of its subordination to political guidelines. The promotion, assimilation and functioning of social realism were asserted for about twenty years, due to the creation of new literary institutions, subordinated to the Communist Party. One of these institutions was the School of Literature ”Mihai Eminescu” created by the Writers Union in 1950 as a consequence of the political guidelines. Its purpose was to form the ”new writer” following the example of the literary education in the USSR. The recruitment of its members, typical for that period, was the result of a control procedure of the access to the profession of writer. Thus, members were selected according to their social origin: the greatest part of them had a proletarian or peasant background. The high number of ”qualified” writers led to literary rivalries and to an imbalance between generations. More then that, the School did not achieve the expected results. Most of the candidates to the title of writer formed by this institution were meant to have a short-lived glory: rewarded with important prizes; publications in volumes; and popular collections; celebrated by the magazines of the moment. As a consequence the School of Literature ceased to exist only four years later.
Memory of Communism and its Postcommunist Actors. The Landlords’ versus the Tenants’ Associations
Recent field of investigation, the restitution of private property represents a central dimension of the economic, political and social process of restructuration affecting post-totalitarian countries. The present study explores this ”reconstruction of property” in post-communist Romania through the investigation of two interest groups - former owners of the nationalized buildings and present tenants (the ”new” owners). Focusing on the creation and organization of these two groups as well as on their actions in political, electoral and media environments, it shows that they had been finally transformed in satellites of different political parties.
The focus of the article is on the negotiation relationship between states and transnational corporations (TNCs) with regard to their entrance in a national economy. The question that this study aims to answer is: given the conflict in international political economy between the theories claiming that transnational corporations have gained a greater power than the nation-states, and those stating that the states’ superiority endures, which of the two visions helps predicting the outcome of negotiations between states and TNCs for the entrance in a national economy? The answer to this question is organized into two parts. The first part is a synthesis of theories about the topic of state-firm negotiations in the new international environment. Based on the most important arguments drawn from the theories, hypotheses were developed about the expected outcome of a negotiation between a state and a TNC. The second part is an empirical study. The developed hypotheses were checked against data collected the privatization of Sidex Galaþi, a Romanian steel mill, sold by the Romanian government to the LNM Group, as a result of negotiations that took place mainly between April and November 2001.
ZOE PETRE, Practica nemuririi. O lectură critică a izvoarelor grecești referitoare la geți, Polirom, col. „Historia“, Iași, 2004 (FLORIN ȚURCANU), pp. 1011-1013
AURELIAN CRÃIUȚU, Liberalism under Siege. The Political Thought of French Doctrinaires, Lexington Books, Lanham, Maryland, 2003 (ANCA SIMITOPOL), pp. 1013-1015
IOAN STANOMIR, Nașterea Constituției. Limbaj și drept în Principate până la 1866, Nemira, București, 2004 (RADU CARP), pp. 1015-1020
CHANTAL DELSOL, MICHEL MAS£OWSKI, JOANNA NOWICKI (coord.), Mituri și simboluri politice în Europa Centrală, prefață de PIERRE CHAUNU, cuvânt înainte de JEAN-JACQUES WUNENBURGER, introducere de MICHEL MAS£OWSKI, traducere de Liviu Papuc, Editura Cartier, col. „Cartier Istoric“, Chișinău, 2003 (ANDREI NICULESCU), 1020-1030
SORINA NICOARÃ, Națiunea modernă. Mituri, simboluri, ideologii, Editura Accent, Cluj-Napoca, 2002 (SERGIU MIªCOIU), pp. 1030-1031
MICHAEL MANN, Fascists, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, 2004 (DANIEL BARBU), pp. 1032-1034
Caiete de Antropologie Istorică, anul II, nr. 1 (3), ianuarie-iunie 2003, Editura Accent, Cluj-Napoca, 2003 (IONELA BÃLUȚÃ), pp. 1035-1037
Caiete de Antropologie Istorică, Anul II, nr. 2(4), iulie-decembrie 2003, Editura Accent, Cluj-Napoca, 2003 (SILVIA MARTON)
Revue des Études Sud-Est Européennes/Journal of South-East European Studies, Vol. XLI, nos. 1-4, janvier-décembre 2003, Editura Academiei Române, București, 2003 (SILVIA MARTON), pp. 1037-1039