Studia Politica. Romanian Political Science Review, vol. XX, no. 2, 2020

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ARTICULI

MARHARYTA FABRYKANT (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Belarusian State University), Dynamics of Attitudinal Dimensions of National Populism in Europe, 2008-2017


This article is dedicated to examining the changes in the political attitudes related to national populism in the European public opinion. The research hypothesis is that the “revival of nationalism” over the last years is due to the rise not in nationalist attitudes as such but in the strength of their intercorrelations with the political attitudes national populism is frequently attributed to – the growing disappointment with democratic ideal, its country-specific implementations, a country’s political system, and the government. The hypothesis is tested by means of a quantitative comparative analysis of the data of the two most recent waves of the European Values Study collected in 2008 and in 2017. The results show the relevance of these correlations by revealing the countries with national populist governments, contrary to other post-Socialist countries, to showcase increased positive correlations between national pride and satisfaction with a country’s political system and confidence in government. These findings support the notion that in Europe, national populism is largely due to the East-West divide not in ideals and aspirations, but in the relative success in their fulfillment.

Keywords: national populism, nationalism, Europe, democracy, political attitudes.

MARHARYTA FABRYKANT (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Belarusian State University), marharyta.fabrykant@gmail.com


ALEJANDRO OLIVARES L. (Temuco Catholic University), CAMILA CARRASCO-HIDALGO (Temuco Catholic University), Social Movements and Public Policies in Chile: Analysis of the Student Movement of 2011 and the No+AFP movement of 2016

Social movements have been studied for their possible influence within political systems. In the past 12 years, Chile has registered an increasing number of social movements that have played an important role in the political system. This article adopts a qualitative methodology with comparative approach of a case, comparing the student movement of 2011 and the No+AFP movement of 2016 and the influence of each movement on the public policy process, their linkages with political parties and whether this connection contributes to the movement having a greater incidence in decision-making. For the development of the comparison, the responses of the political system to the movements will be used; the incidence of the social movements will be analyzed by the level of intervention in the stages of public policy; and finally, the influence of movements will be examined, distinguishing a reactive influence (refusing to accept any decision of the authority) from a proactive influence (participating in the decision-making process of policies).

Keywords: social movements, public policy, students, pensions, Chile.

ALEJANDRO OLIVARES L. (Temuco Catholic University), alejandro.olivares @uct.cl, CAMILA CARRASCO-HIDALGO (Temuco Catholic University), cbcarrascofl@flacso.edu.ec



BAURZHAN BOKAYEV (National School of Public Policy of the Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan), RYMKUL ISMAILOVA (National School of Public Policy of the Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan), ZULFIYA TOREBEKOVA (Syracuse University), Affecting International Migration Trends through a Multi-Faceted Policy: Kazakhstan within Central Asia and the EAEU


This article assesses the implementation of migration policy in Kazakhstan over the past twenty years, focusing on the results attained through attempts to reverse Kazakhstan’s net negative migration trends.

Our analysis traces the impact of socio-economic conditions on migration processes, using the example of the Central Asian and Eurasian Economic Union member states including Kazakhstan. Consideration of

further factors, such as ethnic repatriation, also points to the uphill battle that Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries face in maintaining their skilled workforce and encouraging high skilled migrants to come into the country. The results of the analysis reveal the causes of the low level of efficiency in the Republic of Kazakhstan’s migration policy. Undocumented workers continue to play a major role in industries outside of the highly skilled and household workers, yet they are often denied their labor and human rights. The authors propose new approaches in the regulation of migration activities aimed at improving the quality of life of prospective migrants, improving the socio-economic conditions of

the native population, and mitigating the further outflow of highly qualified specialists from the country. These approaches recognize that solutions must not only address barriers to economic success in Kazakhstan, but also must inspire confidence in Kazakhstan’s improving economic situation even when per capita income remains relatively low.


Keywords: migration policy, government regulation, repatriates, the

external migration balance.


BAURZHAN BOKAYEV (National School of Public Policy of the Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan), b.bokayev@apa.kz, RYMKUL ISMAILOVA (National School of Public Policy of the Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan), r.ismailova@apa.kz, ZULFIYA TOREBEKOVA (Syracuse University), tzulfiya@syr.edu



YAVOR RAYCHEV (University of Granada), Lawfare as a Form of Hybrid War: The case of Bulgaria. An Empirical View 


This article is about the application of lawfare as a tool of a hybrid war. After analyzing the existing positions in the academic debate, a working definition of the latter is given; then the main theoretical postulates are operationalized as empirical indicators and finally, four cases of Russia’s lawfare against Bulgaria are stated. It is argued that lawfare can be used to achieve the capture of the state, what eventually is a goal of every war, including the hybrid one and that such a capture is more probable in states which are former Russian satellites, where Russia indirectly can impact national legislative and decision making process. 


Keywords: Lawfare, hybrid war, economic capture, state capture, Bulgaria-Russia relations.


YAVOR RAYCHEV (University of Granada), yavorraychev1988@gmail.com



HASSAN A. SALIU (University of Ilorin), ADEBOLA BAKARE (University of Ilorin), An Analysis of the Role of the National Assembly in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic and its possible reform 


The legislature is one of the key institutions in the democratic process, to the extent that any attack on its composition or functioning is seen as a blow against democracy. This is premised on the fact that it symbolizes democracy and avails the people the opportunity to participate in governance. However, there have been allegations of misuse of powers and gross misconduct by members of the Nigerian National Assembly which have led to the calls for its scraping or total reformation. It is against this backdrop that this paper examines the utility of the National Assembly in the democratic process in Nigeria. The paper uses two parameters: indispensable functions of the legislature and the institution’s impact in entrenching good governance in the country. Using the descriptive method, the paper examines the role of the National Assembly in Nigeria’s democratic process to determine its indispensability or otherwise. The paper found that though there are numerous issues that need to be resolved, the National Assembly is too weighty to be discarded. As a result of this, it encourages the Nigerian legislators should avoid unnecessary confrontation with the executive arm and improve on legislative-constituency relations to make the institution more effective. 


Keywords: Legislature, National Assembly, democracy, good governance, legislative-executive relations.


HASSAN A. SALIU (University of Ilorin), hassansaliu2003@gmail.com, ADEBOLA RAFIU BAKARE (University of Ilorin), bolaonboard@yahoo.com


KRISTÍNA KRUPOVÁ (University of Economics in Bratislava), ĽUBOMÍR ČECH (University of Economics in Bratislava), A Neo-colonialist French Foreign Policy in Africa? Insights from Côte d’Ivoire 


The main aim of this paper is to analyze possible persistent French neocolonialism in Africa. The first section deals with the theoretical framework of the term under scrutiny, followed by an analysis of the genesis of contemporary French foreign policy towards Africa by comparing the French presidential administrations, as well as analyzing the persistent French military presence in Africa. The paper also focuses on the study of France’s relations with African countries using the example of Côte d’Ivoire and of the French military intervention during the civil war in Côte d’Ivoire (2002). The paper discusses the main consequences of French interventions in the region, and the result of the analysis is a comprehensive assessment of current mutual relations and of the current French influence in sub-Saharan Africa. 


Keywords: foreign policy, colonialism, Africa, France, Côte d’Ivoire.


KRISTÍNA KRUPOVÁ (University of Economics in Bratislava), ĽUBOMÍR ČECH (University of Economics in Bratislava), kristina.krupova@euba.sk

 RECENSIONES

BRIAN D. TAYLOR, The Code of Putinism, New York, Oxford University Press, 2018 (ROBERT ȚICĂLĂU, University of Bucharest)

ARIADNE VROMEN, Digital Citizenship and Political Engagement. The Challenge from Online Campaigning and Advocacy Organizations, London, Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2017 (MARIA - ANCA SANDU, University of Bucharest)

HENRY P. RAMMELT, Activistes protestataires en Hongrie et en Roumanie, Paris, l’Harmattan, 2018 (IULIA SIMINA RAUȚU, Universitatea din București)