Studia Politica. Romanian Political Science Review, vol. XVI, no. 4, 2016

http://www.fspub.unibuc.ro





http://www.ssoar.info




ARGUMENTUM

CAMIL-ALEXANDRU PÂRVU, Mouvements sociaux et élections. Questionner l’absence d’un « double mouvement » polanyien (Social Movements and Elections. Questionning the Contemporary Absence of Polanyi’s “Double Movement”) (pp. 467-480) 
Abstract
How to explain the absence of a countermovement, in Polanyi’s terms, following the financial and economic crisis of 2008? This article proposes an explanation starting from the historical decoupling between political parties and social movements, and examines some hypotheses on the reasons for this discrepancy. While the “double movement” theorized by Polanyi implied a convergence between social movements and political parties to control the institutions that were going to frame the market, this convergence is made difficult today by virtue of the conditions for intellectual autonomy within protest movements.
Keywords
Polanyi, neoliberalism, social movements, political parties, prefigurative politics.

CAMIL-ALEXANDRU PÂRVU is associate professor at the University of Bucharest. He has worked on the
new modes of political protest and co-edited (with Tamara Cărăuș) Special Issue of Globalizations (August 2017), on “Cosmopolitanism and Social Movements”. Recent book: Populism, Rhetoric and Political Representation, Editura Universității din București, București, 2016.(camil.parvu@gmail.com)

ARTICULI

RALUCA ALEXANDRESCU, Identités publiques et modèles démocratiques. Regard sur la constitution des modernités politiques au sud-est européen (XIXe siècle) (Public Identities and Democratic Models: A Perspective on the Construction of Political Modernity in South-Eastern European [XIX century]). (pp. 483-492)
Abstract
Modern European identity is built around two types of cleavages revealed in the beginning of the XIX century: fraternity and conflict. The meanings and the different readings of these two themes of the democratic modernity provide by themselves an accurate image of the period in question. For Central and South-eastern Europe, these two indicators burst into the political scenery and in the political thought at the same period, under the significant impact of the French Revolution. This article is tracking the main paradigm changes produced in the political thought in this part of Europe, especially in the Romanian Principalities, interpreted trough the lenses of civic aggregation and the creation of civil society. Individuals are more and more defined as holding a double existence, as public markers and private entities; this fresh perspective accompanies the expression of either tolerance (accompanied by an auto-critical perspective) or antagonism (of class, race, religion, civilization in a more general matter of speaking) and they are at the ground foundation of modern political system.
Keywords
democracy (theory of), individuals, civil society, toleration, modernity, conflict

RALUCA ALEXANDRESCU is PhD, Associate Professor, Faculty of Political Science, University of Bucharest. Romanian political scientist specialized in the discursive analysis of Romanian and European XIX century political thought, with a strong interest in the conceptual and intellectual history of the political and institutional modernization in Central and Eastern Europe in XIX end early XX century, in terms of democratization process, political power legitimacy and institutional settings. Her latest publications (volumes): Difficiles modernités. Rythmes et régimes conceptuels de la démocratie dans la pensée politique roumaine au XIXe siècle, Editura Universității din București, București, 2015; Le concept de démocratie dans la pensée politique roumaine moderne, Editura Universității din București, București, 2011. (raluca.alexan@gmail.com)


LAURENT ROSSION, Drapeau troué, lambeaux d’État. La Roumanie, de décembre 1989 à décembre 1991 (The Flag with the Hole for a State in Ribbons. Romania, from December 1989 to December 1991) (pp. 493-509)
Abstract
In December 1989, the Romanian revolution rises, and its symbol emerges: the flag with the hole. But this blank conveyed two recollections: of course, the arm of coats of the communist flag, but also the blazon of the past kingdom. Yet, it was crucial to decide how to fill in the flag. And so, two visions of the past are confronted, two golden ages: pre-communist or pre-Ceaușescu. Basically, political stakeholders at that time interpreted the hole in the flag as an opportunity for restoring the past, far more than as an invitation for a fresh start. In this way, these two years, from December 1989 to December 1991, were very unstable, with no clear symbolics for the Romanian State.
Keywords
flag, national symbols, revolution, transition

LAURENT ROSSION studied literature and anthropology (Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium), and taught French language and francophone literature at the University of Bucharest, with a special interest for Romanian frenchwriting authors. Translator from Romanian. Currently studying Law.(laurent_rossion@yahoo.com)


DOMNICA GOROVEI, Le rôle des mouvements citoyens dans le processus électoral en Afrique subsaharienne. Le cas du « Balai citoyen » (Burkina Faso) (The Role of Grassroot Movements in the Electoral Process in Sub-Saharan Africa. The “Balai citoyen” Case in Burkina Faso) (pp. 511-537)
Abstract
The article examines the evolution of grass-root movements in Africa after 2011 in the electoral context marked by the incumbent president’s plan to preserve power indefinitely. A case study on the Balai citoyen (citizen broom) movement is proposed. The article aims to identify the logic, the rhetoric and the mobilization that this youth civil movement proposes in the context of the 2013-2014 contestation of the regime. A success story that continues also after the president’s fall, in October 2014, and translates into a mobilization that converts the revolutionary logic of the movement into the classic perspective assumed by pressure groups.
Keywords
grassroot movement, Burkina Faso, Balai Citoyen, elections, transition.

DOMNICA GOROVEI is PhD in Political Science at the Department of Political Science, University of Bucharest. Main research interests: political representation, postcommunist Romania, African politics, political parties, electoral studies. (domnica.gorovei@gmail.com)

VARIA

PETRU NEGURĂ, The Republic of Moldova’s Transition. Between a Failed Communism and an Un-Commenced Capitalism? (pp. 541-568)
Abstract
This article outlines the main social, political, and economic reasons that explain Moldova’s delay in its post-Soviet transition, after gaining its independence in August 1991. In comparison to the Baltic States, Republic of Moldova has had a different starting point in the “transition race”. First, the independence of the former Soviet republic benefited of a much lesser support within the Moldovan society – local population and political elites –, and on behalf of foreign states and international institutions. Moldova’s agrarian economy and its strong dependence on Russian resources and post-Soviet economic system also disadvantaged its development. To this one could add state governors’ low capacity to negotiate with foreign financial donors (mainly IMF and World Bank) in order to defend the local economic interests, but also to properly use the contracted credits. One of the main obstacles in Moldova’s development path was the low quality of state governance and the advanced level of “state capture” (i.e. interference of vested interests into state governance) and thus its limited capacity to administrate a favorable transition based on existent economic resources and assets, not on their ruins.
Keywords
Republic of Moldova, post-Soviet transition, independence, state capture, governance.

PETRU NEGURĂ is lecturer at “Ion Creangă” State Pedagogical University in Chișinău. He held his Ph.D. in Sociology at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (Paris). He was a Fulbright visiting scholar at UC Berkeley, Department of History, in 2015. He authored the book Ni héros, ni traîtres. Les écrivains moldaves face au pouvoir soviétique sous Staline, Paris, L’Harmattan, 2009, translated in Romanian in 2014. Petru Negură is also co-editor of an independent outlet in Moldova: PLATZFORMA. Revista de critică socială. His current research topics are the sociology/social history of intellectuals in Eastern Europe and former USSR, the sociology/social history of public education in Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union, the sociology/social history of the social welfare services in the USSR and post-Soviet Moldova. (Petru.Negura@gmail.com)


ARMAND GOȘU, The Future of Romanian-Russian Relations in the Trump Era (pp. 569-576)
Abstract
The present article is an analysis of Romanian-Russian relations from December 1989 to now. The author’s conclusion is that Romania’s initiatives have always been in counterstep with all the other states in the region in relation to Russia. Donald Trump’s presidency, as it hints at a possible radical change in Washington’s relationship to Russia, forces Romania to rethink its bilateral relationship with Russia, depending on futur developments. The author analyzes the factors that will influence decisions made by Bucharest in relation to Moscow over the next several years.
Keywords
Romanian foreign policy, Russia, Trump, NATO, Putin, Lavrov, Russia

ARMAND GOȘU is Ph.D. in Russian History (Moscow, 1998). Associate professor of Russian Studies at the Univesity of Bucharest. Member of the Board of Directors of the Civic Academy Foundation. Deputy Editor in Chief (2005-2009) and Chief Editor (2013-2014) of the Revista 22 edited by the Group for the Social Dialogue. (armand.gosu@fpsub.unibuc.ro)

RECENSIONES

JENS IVO ENGELS, FREDERIC MONIER, NATALIE PETITEAU, La politique vue d'en bas. Pratiques privées et débats publics, 19e-20e siècles, (actes du colloque d'Avignon, mai 2010), Armand Colin, coll. Recherches/Les coulisses du politique dans l'Europe contemporaine, t. 1, Paris, 2012; FREDERIC MONIER, OLIVIER DARD, JENS IVO ENGELS, Patronage et corruption politiques dans l'Europe contemporaine, Armand Colin, coll. Recherches/Les coulisses du politique dans l'Europe contemporaine, t. 2, Paris, 2014; OLIVIER DARD, JENS IVO ENGELS,ANDREAS FAHRMEIR, Scandales et corruption à l'époque contemporaine, Armand Colin, coll. Recherches/Les coulisses du politique dans l'Europe contemporaine, t. 3, Paris, 2014 (MARIA CHIRILOAIA) (pp. 579-582)

BRUCE BUCHAN, LISA HILL, An Intellectual History of Political Corruption, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014 (ALEXANDRA OPREA) (pp. 582-584)

PIETER M. JUDSON, The Habsburg Empire: A New History, Harvard University Press, 2016 (ANDREI DAN SORESCU) (pp. 584-585)

EDUARDO DARGENT, Technocracy and Democracy in Latin America: The Experts Running Government, Cambridge University Press,Cambridge, 2014 (ANDREI MACSUT) (pp. 585-587)

BEN HILLMAN, Patronage and Power: Local State Networks and Party-State Resilience in Rural China, Stanford University Press,Stanford, 2014 (ANDREI MACSUT) (pp.588-590)